Re Rome, BBC2, 2 November 2005, 21:00
The first episode of this new 11-part drama attracted 25 complaints.
Most viewers objected to the general tone of the drama, some describing
it as pornographic. Some viewers also considered that the violence was
unacceptable in a programme shown immediately after the 21:00 watershed
- one viewer complaining about a rape scene and another the religious
sacrifice of a bull.
The first episode set out the historical context of the power struggle
between Julius Caesar and Pompey. Julius Caesar’s victorious war in Gaul
was undermining Pompey’s political power in Rome.
With this background established, the Roman soldiers were seen in battle
defeating the tribes in Gaul . The violence showed the brutality of war
but it was not gratuitous and did so without dwelling on any graphic
images. A scene of rape was not shown in detail. No close up shots were
shown and the focus was on the other soldiers’ impatience to return to
Rome . The other scenes of violence were limited, set in this historical
context and were unlikely to encourage imitation.
The sexual elements in this episode were frank, but not overly explicit
for this time of evening. The drama showed the matter-of-fact attitude
to sex of the ruling class as, in some cases, sex was used to further
political or social aspirations. One of the main female characters, Atia,
sister of Julius Caesar, appeared to have no scruples in using sex as a
bargaining tool to achieve her ends. Although there was some nudity in
these sexual encounters, the scenes did not concentrate unduly on the
sexual activity. Atia’s son, Octavian, was a teenage boy and his mother
discussed political matters with him whilst taking a bath. She saw no
embarrassment in the situation, whilst he was not comfortable with his
mother’s attitude towards nudity and sex, as well her political
machinations. Following her son’s dispatch to Gaul , Atia is seen
praying for him as a bull was sacrificed above her, covering her in
blood. This was presented in the context of a religious ritual. The
sacrifice was not seen in detail.
Later on in the episode, Pompey attended a play in a marketplace. On
stage, a character wore an exaggerated phallus. As the play continued in
the background, Pompey was introduced to a potential wife, who commented
on the crudity of play to signify that she was highborn.
We appreciate that this content may not be to every viewer’s taste, as
it attempted to portray Roman life. However the drama had received
widespread publicity about this approach. An announcement informed
The battle to rule an empire begins now, and with so much at stake, it
gets pretty bloody. So, expect language, sex, violence and scenes of
ritual animal slaughter as an epic new drama unfolds and BBC 2 enters
We considered that the pre-publicity, the announcement and the build up
within the drama would have given parents and carers sufficient
information to make a considered decision about whether to allow
children to view this programme. After 21:00 it is generally accepted
that more adult material may be shown and, in our view, the content did
not go beyond viewers’ expectations for programming at this time of the
evening, in the context of this historical drama set in Rome .
The programme was not in breach of the Code
The sixth series of Big Brother has been criticised for
operating "at the limits of acceptability" by broadcasting watchdog
Ofcom. It rebuked Channel 4 over sexual scenes in which Makosi and
Anthony appeared to have sex in the pool, and Kinga simulated sex with a
Big Brother presenter Davina McCall was cleared of racial
discrimination over what some viewers complained was a hostile interview
with Zimbabwean contestant Makosi. Ofcom also cleared the programme-makers
of introducing racist elements to boost ratings in the reality show,
where the contestants appeared to split into two groups along racial
Of a total 887 complaints about the series, Ofcom received 259
specifically over the infamous Kinga scenes.
Channel 4 admitted "the incident was a shocking one", but it said it had
an obligation to show the scenes to give viewers a true picture of
events in the house. It said the images, which went out after the
watershed and following warnings to viewers, were edited so only a
minimum amount of footage went in the programme.
Ofcom said Kinga's drunken antics "did amount to potentially dangerous
behaviour" but it said that it was unlikely to have encouraged copycat
behaviour from viewers. The message was that this was "not behaviour to
be condoned or encouraged" because Kinga regretted her actions and the
housemates were not impressed. It said the episode was not in breach of
the broadcasting code, but added: We should stress that we only
decided this 'on balance' and that our concerns were serious. This
programme, in our view, along with the (scenes of) Anthony and Makosi in
the pool, operated at the limits of acceptability, in terms of potential
harm and/or offence for a programme of this nature, broadcast on this
channel and at this time.
further discussion of these consultations
Ofcom are consulting over their planned schedule of regulatory activity
for 2006/2007. Many visitors here may be suffering from consultation
overload, but despite the recent set backs and the lack of willingness
of our regulatory friends at Ofcom to consider regulatory issues
surrounding adult service broadcasting in an appropriate and
proportionate manner we will continue to press them on these issues.
We have attempted to extract the salient bits from this
consultation document. If you don’t agree with what has been
said please don’t write to us write to Ofcom! We will be responding to
this consultation in the new year. Of the nine areas of activity that
Ofcom consider to be a priority at least 5 of them are likely to impact
on adult service subscribers for better or worse:
3. Continued deregulation – continuing to explore opportunities
to reduce and better target regulation, taking account of the latest
regulatory thinking, such as the recommendations of the Hampton
4. Next generation deployment
– understanding how the next
generation of telecoms networks and services are evolving and
considering the implications for regulation, both in the core network
and in the access network, which can be used for higher-speed broadband.
6. Content delivery
– understanding how new methods of delivering
internet and media content are creating opportunities for innovation and
examining the potential benefits for citizens and consumers. We will
also consider the implications for regulation and ensure appropriate
protection for children.
7. Consumer protection – taking enforcement action to protect
both consumers and citizens, handling complaints effectively and
promoting media literacy.
9. International engagement
– seeking to influence the way that
regulatory policy evolves, in particular, the new EU directive on TV and
other audio-visual content, the revised EU framework for electronic
communications and international negotiations on spectrum, including the
Regional Radio Conference 2006.
A depiction of a murder in the popular detective series
A Touch of
Frost has landed ITV in trouble after a viewer complained that it
was unsuitable to be shown before the watershed.
ITV has been found in breach of the Broadcasting Code for the episode,
screened on September 25 at 8.20pm. It showed a mother and daughter
getting ready for bed, while an intruder lurked in their house. The
daughter was then seen unconscious in the bathroom, then the intruder
attacked the mother.
In a further scene, after the ad break, Jack Frost, who is played by Sir
David Jason, was shown at the scene of the murder inspecting the body of
the mother, who was shown stabbed and bound on the bedroom floor.
ITV did not broadcast a warning about violent scenes in the programme
because it did not consider it necessary. It said that the character of
Jack Frost was well established and that the show did not include
graphic violence, nor was it different to the approach taken by the show
in other episodes.
Ofcom agreed that, in the context of a crime series, the portrayal of
the attack and aftermath were not excessive. However, in its ruling it
said that research showed that violence in a domestic setting may be
particularly upsetting to children. The sinister build-up in the
family home, the attack on the mother and the images of her bloodied
body were all potentially disturbing elements, particularly to children.
As this episode was scheduled before the watershed and would appeal to a
wide-ranging audience, we believe that an announcement about the content
would have been helpful to viewers in allowing them to make an informed
choice of whether to view with their children.
It ruled that ITV was in breach of the code regarding information about
Philip Graf was today appointed as Deputy Chairman of Ofcom, Sean
Williams appointed as Executive Director on the Ofcom Board and Polly
Weitzman appointed as General Counsel.
Graf will also chair the Ofcom Content Board, which has
responsibility for the regulation of television and radio quality and
standards. He will be replacing Richard Hooper. Although this is
unlikely to lead to any significant short term policy changes a new
person in charge may be of benefit in the future.
Graf is currently chairman of the Press Standards Board of Finance,
the body that funds the Press Complaints Commission, and chairman of the
Broadband Stakeholder Group, an advisory group to government, but will
resign these positions before taking up his new post.
The three to five-year appointment was made jointly by Alan Johnson,
secretary of state for trade and industry, and Tessa Jowell, secretary
of state for culture, media and sport. Graf's appointment is effective
from 1 January 2006. He will draw a £100,515 annual salary for up to
three days a week.
Sky Sports has been censured by Ofcom for resurrecting a character
from the larger than life world of American wrestling who had been
"killed off" after being accused of inciting anti-Muslim sentiment among
World Wrestling Entertainment, the successor to the World Wrestling
Federation franchise that became popular in the UK during the 1990s, was
forced to axe the character of Muhammad Hassan from the ring after
complaints in the wake of the July 7 London bombings.
But Sky Sports was yesterday censured by the media regulator Ofcom
after the digital channel included the character in a programme which
went out just over two weeks later on July 25.
The Great American Bash, a highlight of the WWE calender, brought
together characters from its Raw and Smackdown strands of programming.
The character, played by an American, Mark Copani, entered the ring
wearing an Arab headdress and surrounded by a phalanx of masked men in
combat clothes who were described by the commentators as his "sympathisers".
There was also use of emotive language, including the words "martyr",
"sacrifice" and "infidel" and footage of a previous clash between him
and another wrestler was set to music that sounded like the Muslim call
After the programme, Sky approached WWE to ensure the character would be
withdrawn, and it ended his contract.
Thanks to Byron & Manus
Being a big WWE fan I'd like to comment on the Ofcom ruling.
WWE got rid of the Muhammad Hassan character played by an Italian
American after UPN, the US Network that shows Smackdown,
complained about an terrorist angle on the July 7th Smackdown
that was recorded on July 5th. It had nothing to do with SKY. WWE kept
the character until the Great American Bash event as in the USA its a
PPV event so people had already paid to see the Undertaker face him so
they had to have the match. During the live Sky Sports showing of the
event at 1am until 4am the angle Sky had cut from the July 7th Smackdown was shown.
Sky got in trouble for this from Ofcom who really don’t have nothing
better to do but attack entertainment programmes and porn. Sky should
not have got into trouble for two reasons:
- Reason 1 is that the show is live and sky had no idea that the
angle would be re-shown.
- Reason 2 Why attack a show like wrestling that is no different
from a show like 24 for showing Muslims as terrorists. The
latest season of 24 showed this so why cant WWE. They are both
scripted so why is one treated differently from the other. I know
that racial stereotyping is wrong but if one form of entertainment
can do why cant another.
The BBFC sees no problem with this as it has just passed the
American Bash 15 uncut and added the following on the back Contains
Recently Daivari Hassan's manager came back to WWE. Daivari has the same
gimmick. The WWE put him on their most watched show Raw. They did
this as it is on the USA Network in the USA and since Raw is the
number one show on cable they let them get away with anything. Raw
is shown in the UK live on Sky Sports 3 every Monday night at 2am until
Sky has so far said nothing about Daivari who has been in the UK this
week as the WWE has taped the Raw and Smackdown shows for
broadcast here and in the USA at Sheffield.
WWE is big business for Sky as it is the highest rated show other than
premiership football on Sky Sports. In fact most weeks WWE programming
is the most watched show on multichannel tv.
Ofcom thankfully showed some sense when it turned down the complaint by
someone that the Hassan angle could have been watched by children. This
is nonsense as WWE has not been for kids for 8 years. They started to
appeal to an adult audience in 1997 when kids had been deserting them
for the now out of business WCW. Sky have been giving warnings about the
content for at least 6 years. The live shows are all on well past the
watershed at 1 and 2am.
How long before some bright spark watches the repeat of this weeks Raw
on Wednesday and complains about Daivari. Ofcom was surposed to be a new
liberal regulator but its just the ITC in disguise.
surveys have been saying that most aspects of life have been
'declining', 'going down hill', 'going to the dogs' etc as long as I can
remember. Surely we should have hit rock bottom by now.
In reality I bet most people would prefer to live
in 2005 than any bygone golden era of morality. Life has never been so
good as our porn, swearing, crime infested, god forsaken modern age!
Based on an article from
An Ofcom reports says that British viewers blame soap operas and
reality TV shows for what they believe is an increasing outpouring of
bad language on screen. Many viewers are also said to fear that strong
language is creeping earlier into the viewing schedules ahead of the 9pm
watershed, which is designed to limit strong content to adult viewers.
Ofcom's researchers quizzed more than 170 people in Glasgow, Bristol,
Leicester and London to discover people's attitudes towards swearing on
the small screen. Those interviewed described their experiences of
swearing on screen and gave their reaction to excerpts from ten
programmes, all containing varying degrees of bad language.
The study concluded that, while some instances of bad language could be
justified by the context - a documentary about a prison, for example -
bad language on TV was often thought to be used gratuitously.
Programmes cited by viewers as responsible for increasing amounts of bad
language included Eastenders, Grumpy Old Men, Hell's
Kitchen and the daytime chat show Trisha. The Osbournes, the fly-on-the-wall documentary following the eccentric
household of Ozzy Osbourne and his family, was also singled out for its
strong language, but viewers felt more forgiving as they considered that
the rocker's constant outbursts were "funny" and "part of the context."
The combative Glaswegian chef Gordon Ramsay is criticised in the
research for his incessant use of the F-word. While many viewers were
tolerant of bad language used when cameras were present in high-pressure
work environments, Ramsay's unrelenting bad language failed to impress.
Viewers thought it added nothing to the programme and could easily
have been edited out.
The report says that the unexpected use of strong language remains
offensive to the average viewer. One of the clips examined by the Ofcom
researchers was a four-letter outburst by John Lydon, better known as
Johnny Rotten, while a contestant on I'm a Celebrity ... Get Me Out
of Here. His language hit the headlines in February 2004 and forced
ITV to introduce a time delay on subsequent episodes of the reality
The media analyst Paul Robinson said he thought Ofcom would take a
"relaxed" view of reality TV, despite concerns raised by some of the
audience. If something creeps out in a live programme, and it's in
context, Ofcom will probably be more tolerant than something that has
been scripted. They know these shows are going to be seen by kids
whatever time they are scheduled.
The research was commissioned for Ofcom as part of its Broadcasting
Code, which came into force in July this year.
It has come to our attention via a recent
Freedom of Information request that Ofcom now intend to publish the
minutes of both the Content Board and the Main Board meetings 6 months
after the meetings take place. The minutes will still be "redacted" (Ofcom
speak for edited) by Ofcom prior to publication to remove material that
they believe falls within any of the Freedom of Information Act
exemptions, however a much clearer picture of activities should still
The exact timing of the publication of the critical R18 discussions
that took place during the 25th and 26th meetings of the Content Board
and 51st and 54th meetings of the Main Board is unclear, but under the 6
month rule all of these should now be publishable with the exception of
the 54th meeting of the Main Board which would have to wait until this
Thursday (10th November). There will be considerable delays initially as
Ofcom will have a backlog to clear and will also have to "redact" the
documents first. It is planned to publish the first 23 content board
minutes as a priority although even this might take "some time".
We await publication with interest. There has certainly been a change
of heart at Ofcom since the
Ofwatch appeal for minutes back in June was refused by Stephen
Carter himself. It would seem that the Information Commissioner has the
ability to clarify matters in a way that Ofwatch was unable. All we can
say is our thanks to Mr Payne at the offices of the Information
Commissioner and also great thanks to Peter Woods for supplying this
information to us. Who knows perhaps this small step will help clear the
way for the redaction of R18 content on adult services as well.
The 18 rated 9 Songs includes several explicit hardcore scenes
showing real sex These include a woman performing fellatio and
masturbating an erect penis, ejaculation and close up of vagina being
penetrated by penis and finger.
9 Songs is being shown all day on Sky Box Office. And just to
add that the BBFC did in fact pass a DVD extra for 9 Songs at R18
featuring longer sex scenes out of context.
From blackjaques on The Melon
Well, I watched 9 Songs the night before last and was very
surprised just how explicit it was, particularly the fellatio scene.
Having watched so much " Y-Front Fellatio" and "pot-plant penetration"
on the Adult channels it came as quite a shock! Just reinforces Ofcon`s
absurdity. You can watch this film over your corn flakes at 7 o`clock in
the morning but if anything similar is shown on an adult subscription
channel late at night, some clown from Mediawatch gets to hear about it,
complains to Ofcon and the channel is fined £ 20,000. What a sexually
repressive, immature country we live in.
From IanG on The Melon
That`s the total hypocrisy and lunacy coming out of Ofcon for ya.
From `The Code`:
1.23 Pay per view services may broadcast up to BBFC 18-rated films or
their equivalent, at any time of day provided:
there is a protection system pre 2100 and post 0530 (a mandatory PIN or
other equivalent protection), that seeks satisfactorily to restrict
access solely to those authorised to view when material other than BBFC
U-rated or PG-rated or their equivalents is shown;
So, the supposedly ineffective PIN protection and NO watershed is going
to stop kids seeing fellatio, ejaculation, masturbation and vaginal
penetration simply because this is an 18 rated film? No! It`s going to
stop kids seeing this material because it is presented with some
`artistic merit`? No!
'The Code' continues:
1.24 Premium subscription services and pay per view/night services
may broadcast ‘adult–sex’ material between 2200 and 0530 provided that
in addition to other protections mentioned above:
there is a mandatory PIN protected encryption system, or other
equivalent protection, that seeks satisfactorily to restrict access
solely to those authorised to view; and
there are measures in place that ensure that the subscriber is an adult.
1.25 BBFC R18-rated films or their equivalent must not be broadcast.
If the sex scenes in 9 Songs are taken out of the context of that
film they would not pass at anything less than R18, therefore Sky Box
Office is showing "R18 or equivalent material", which of course is not
allowed at any time. As has been stated many times, children simply do
not have the ability to appreciate the context in which such scenes are
presented and justified outside R18, thus to any child (or adult for
that matter) this is R18 equivalent hardcore material.
If such hardcore scenes can `deprave and corrupt` our youth then this
film, along with several others, has everything Ofcon are so reluctant
to allow on PIN protected, post-watershed, late night, adult-only
channels. Obviously Ofcon were a) wrong in their decision or, b) just
wanted to maintain rights abuse of adult TV viewers (aka the status quo)
or, c) wanted to cripple adult TV services in the UK. Either way their
decision can now be seen as the total and utter foundless nonsense we
all know it to be. I might add that as far as I was aware the Ofcon Code
does not allow PPV services to broadcast 18 rated adult `sex works`
between 5:30am and 10pm so if Sky are broadcasting this film 24/7 they
most definitely are in serious breach of the Code and should be fined
very heavily because according to Ofcon PIN protection is insufficient
to safeguard kids from `R18 or equivalent` scenes.
However, this should convince UK adult services to force a Judicial
Review of the Ofcon Code because the law it is based upon says nothing
different from that applied to R18 videos and as such the decision by
the High Court in 2000 stands - there are NO GROUNDS to suppress
hardcore material, because the dangers to children do not warrant such
disproportionate rights abuse by a public body. The fact people in the
UK can and do receive hardcore TV from Europe is proof that the R18 ban
is not fulfilling Ofcon`s requirement to provide an environment for new
services to meet customer expectations and tastes. As no action has been
taken to suppress any of the Euro providers (save one failed attempt),
the dangers to children from this material obviously DO NOT EXIST. The
ban is therefore without any precedent in UK or European law and in fact
the ban was outlawed by the ECHR in 1990 when they stated that "a
licensing system cannot be used to suppress any legally available
material". No ifs, no buts, it is illegal to ban R18 from our screens,
full stop. All Ofcon can do is to stipulate that R18 can only be
broadcast at a time when it is `unlikely children will be viewing`.
Ofcon have ignored the requirement in UK law to consult the Case Law of
the ECHR, they have ignored the wording of the TVWF Directive and, they
have chosen to interpret the Comms Act 2003 in a way that is not
compatible with the HRA. They have not provided any evidence contrary to
that the BBFC presented when they lost the R18 appeal and thus they have
no right whatsoever to ignore the High Court ruling of 2000. Ofcon are
committing an act of unmitigated human rights abuse. There are no time
restrictions or PIN codes applied to viewing R18 videos in the home and
yet such `lax` security measures are not sufficent to warrant an
outright ban on the sale of R18 for home consumption. There can be no
justification for applying a ban on receiving the same material via TV,
which does offer time restrictions and PIN protection. In either case,
the law recognises the vigilance and the rights of the carer outweigh
the unfounded concerns of the censor or regulator.
Bulletin about programme complaints includes a fair few entries about
the UK censored adult channels. It is interesting to note that the table
has not been included in the usual html version but is hidden away in
the pdf version.
All of these are listed under the single
line of explanation: Other programmes not in breach or out of remit
||No of complaints
|Live XXX TV
||Live XXX TV
|Sandy Agent Provocateur
|Secrets of the Mistress' Chambers
|Sophie's Wet Dreams
|Squirters and Gushers
|Squirters and Gushers
|White Knights and Pink Maidens
Now presumably these are mostly related to the fact that the channels
show snippets of R18 material that is specifically banned in Ofcon's
programme code. It is a blatant breach of their responsibility to not
explain why they allow R18 snippets when the publicly available code
says that they are banned. What is going on? and why cannot Ofcom answer
Is there an unpublished guideline
about what time 'strong adult material' can actually be broadcast?
Ofcom has beaten the BBC in a 14-month tussle over the post-watershed
screening of Quentin Tarantino's movie Pulp Fiction.
The media regulator decided that 9.10pm on BBC2 was too early to begin
transmission of Pulp Fiction, even though this was after the 9pm
watershed, because of the seriously offensive language, graphic
violence and drug abuse that occur in the first 20 minutes of the
It agreed with nine viewers who had complained and ruled that the
broadcast, on August 7 last year, had breached its programme code on the
scheduling of films with strong, adult content.
Ofcom's publication of its verdict on the
Pulp Fiction complaints
has been delayed because the BBC appealed the decision three times and
matter went to the regulator's content board for a final ruling.
A combination of seriously offensive language, graphic violence and
drug abuse occurred early in the film, before 9.30pm. Under the relevant
[programme] code, 18 films are not prohibited but the content should be
suitable for the time of transmission, the regulator said.Such
intense material is not normally expected so soon after the watershed.
We believe the scheduling of the film at 9.10pm was too early, given the
strong, adult content from the start.
In making its decision, Ofcom noted that audience figures showed that 8%
of the Pulp Fiction audience - 124,000 viewers - were aged 15 and
The BBC argued that it had broadcast Pulp Fiction on four
previous occasions and that it was unlikely to surprise or offend BBC2
viewers, being one of the most influential and best known films of the
last 10 years.
Ofcom said it had no issue with the BBC's argument for the editorial and
cultural merits of the film, but noted that all the previous four BBC2
transmissions of Pulp Fiction had begun at 9.45pm or later.
Lets hope it proves free of the usual shitty real
life after effects
Television Without Frontiers
Responses to the recent Television without Frontiers European
consultation are now available on the
Europa website including those from Ofwatch, Ofcom and many others.
we note that the Mediawatch response stands alone in it's demand that
the country of origin principle be swapped for the country of reception
principle. This would effectively change the directive into what might
best be described as "Television With Frontiers" where every country
would be required to regulate it's broadcast services according to the
whims of any other country where the signals could be received. This
would cause broadcasting chaos. Thankfully this novel Mediawatch idea
has no chance of being accepted.
Lord Currie at the Liverpool conference debating changes to European
Ofcom seem to have a healthy aversion to regulating the Internet.
Perhaps even Ofcom realise that any such attempt would become mired in
controversy from the start and lead to endless battles that they would
be unlikely to win. Ofcom's chairman Lord Currie
speech at the Liverpool Television Without Frontiers conference
included the following passage:
This debate of course operates in parallel to the debate about
potential tightening of the criminal law, where the UK Government has
now identified possible scope to extend criminal penalties for
possession of certain forms of electronic image beyond the established
remit of the law in relation to child pornography, to include certain
other forms of extreme pornography. We start from a belief that such a
combination of tightened criminal law, coupled with action by service
providers to empower consumers to protect themselves and their loved
ones from harmful, but not necessarily illegal content, could go a long
way to deliver the benefits claimed for extending the scope of TWF.
Conversely, we have real concern as to whether it is feasible to
adopt a traditional, broadcast-type regulatory model for content
delivered on new media platforms. In broadcasting, it is possible to
impose additional rules beyond the straightforward criminal law because
broadcasters require regulators’ permission to operate – there is, in
the form of an operating or spectrum licence, a peg on which to hang
regulatory rules. For some forms of new media distribution, similar pegs
might be found – for instance for mobile content. But for pure,
internet-delivered content it is difficult to see how any meaningful
licensing controls could be imposed and hence how any sanction could be
enforced. These problems arise even if the regulatory instrument of
choice is a co-regulatory scheme in which industry operates against a
long-stop of possible enforcement action by the regulator.
And it would be a terrible irony if the act of trying to impose
top-down rules on those who can
be reached via traditional
regulation has the perverse effect of rewarding distribution across
platforms which we cannot reach.
Ofcom attempt to answer frequently asked questions about the
We have said it once and we will say it again, Ofcom need to get off
the back of the viewing public and let people make up their own minds
about what is appropriate for them to view. Hopefully by next year we
will start to see the emergence of improved television services
delivered via the Internet which are secure from censorship imposed by
Ofcom. With any luck Ofcom will then regulate the traditional
bowdlerised UK 'adult' content out of existence. In the words of Lord
Currie it would be a terrible irony if the act of trying to impose
top-down rules on those who can be reached via traditional
regulation has the perverse effect of rewarding distribution across
platforms which we cannot reach. an irony it will be indeed and one we
look forward to expectantly.
Until then here are Ofcom's
frequently asked questions about the broadcasting code.
Thanks to Gawth on The Melon
I have just got back from holiday and have received exactly the same letter from
Ofcon. Seems they cannot even be bothered to write individual responses. I also
questioned the fact that TAC and Playboy do not require PIN entry to view yet
the code states adult services must be PIN protected. Surprise surprise this
hasn`t been answered.
You may recall the Ofcon guidelines state:
1.24 Premium subscription services and pay per view/night services may
‘adult-sex’ material between 2200 and 0530 provided that in addition to
protections mentioned above:
- there is a mandatory PIN protected encryption system, or other
protection, that seeks satisfactorily to restrict access solely to those
authorised to view; and
- there are measures in place that ensure that the subscriber is an
Ofcom programme guidelines make it crystal clear that only softcore as
per that rated 18 by the BBFC can be shown on UK licensed TV. Yet Ofcom
have been continually allowing snippets of hardcore material that would
be rated R18 by the BBFC. What is more, they refuse to investigate
complaints about this deviation from their own published standards.
One can only assume that they have agreed private, non-published
guidelines with the adult channels. Presumably because keeping to the
commercially unacceptable softcore guidelines would be a commercial
wipeout for the UK adult TV industry.
Thanks to Gawth on The Melon
Complaints about various programmes on adult channels
I refer to your recent complaints about the content of certain programmes
transmitted on licensed adult channels.
As you are clearly aware, the Broadcasting Code (Section 1.25) states that BBFC
R18 rated films or their equivalent may not be broadcast on UK television. And I
note your assertion that - in your view - some particular films may have
included very brief shots that might have gone beyond what is normally
acceptable in BBFC 18 rated sex works.
I am sure I do not have to explain to you that much of the material broadcast on
the licensed adult channels involves films originally certified at R18, and
subsequently cut down for UK transmission. The cut down versions are not
subsequently submitted to the BBFC for re-classification - nor is there any
legal requirement for them to be re-classified for television. In other words,
compliance with the broadcasting code is - in the first instance - a matter for
the broadcaster alone.
Ofcom, of course,is not a film classification body, and it would be entirely
inappropriate for us to seek (and we do not seek) to usurp the role of the BBFC
in that regard, and "classify" individual shots. Nevertheless, we expect
cut-down films shown on UK television services to be broadly in-line with the
national classification system, and not to stray into R18 territory. For that
reason, we are engaged in a dialogue with the broadcasters to ensure that they
are fully aware of their responsibilities.
In the meantime, I note your previously stated position that you are not
personally offended by any of this material, and that you would - in fact -
prefer to have access to much stronger material on UK television. In other
words, your motives for making these complaints are not straightforward.
I am aware that a small number of specialist internet sites / forums are
currently urging contributors to make multiple complaints of this kind for
nuisance value - in protest at the continued restrictions on the transmission of
R18 material. In such circumstances, Ofcom may take the view that such
complaints are vexatious and/or generate an unjustified and greatly
disproportionate burden on Ofcom`s limited resources.
Although I have responded to your complaint on this occasion, you should be
aware that if Ofcom considers complainants to be vexatious, either due to their
submission of multiple complaints or for any other reason, it is Ofcom`s policy
not to respond to them.
We will, of course, continue to regulate the adult industry as appropriate and
in accordance with our duties under the Act.
Senior Programmes Executive.
Radio 1 has been rapped for a foul-mouthed tirade on an early evening broadcast.
At the start of Most Punk, broadcast at 7pm on a Thursday night in June,
show host Zane Lowe welcomed listeners with: Hello ladies, boys and girls, I
thought that you might like to know - in the spirit of punk rock – the following
show includes, what we often refer to as language. So if, like me, you are
offended by such words and phrases as: arse; bollocks; tit, wank; tit-wank;
rotter; mother licker; mother sucker; mother fucker; twat; minge juice; bottler
and of course bastard – then you might wish to turn over, or fuck off – thank
Two listeners complained to Ofcom over the incident. The BBC maintained that the
programme was preceded by a warning and that the "carefully considered" clip was
designed to be "thought-provoking".
Broadcasters have the right to transmit, and listeners the right to receive,
material which may offend some people but uses strong language to explore
artistic and creative themes, said Ofcom, who ruled that R1 had contravened
the code. However, the right to deal with such subject matter comes with the
responsibility of ensuring material is appropriately scheduled with the
potential child audience in mind. While this was a legitimate approach, its
application here was seriously misguided.
The regulator added that, although the BBC had pointed out that under 15's
accounted for less than 1% of the radio audience at the time, the figure for
Radio 1 was a more significant 14%. Given the potential child audience for
Radio 1 at this time, we believe that the use of such strong language, with such
intensity, at the start of the programme was inappropriate.
Make Poverty History (MPH), hailed as one of the most effective
lobbying campaigns ever with its simple message and signature white
wrist band, was banned on Monday from television and radio advertising
Ofcom said the goals of its campaign, including an array of stars
clicking their fingers to ram home the message that a child dies of
preventable poverty every three seconds, were political and therefore
outlawed. We have reached the unavoidable conclusion that MPH is a
body whose objects are 'wholly or mainly' political as defined under the
Act. MPH is therefore prohibited from advertising on television or
radio, Ofcom said on its Web site.
When Ofcom stops
ignoring complaints about brief snippets of hardcore on UK satellite
channels, I wonder if they will argue that the snippets of hardcore are
brief and wont be spotted by viewers so can be ignored
Cruising on Channel five, 4 June 2005, 23:20
This 1980 film starred Al Pacino as an undercover cop investigating a serial
killer on the New York gay scene. A viewer complained about two virtually
imperceptible clips of anal penetration. He believed that the BBFC (British
Board of Film Classification) had required these scenes to be cut for the
film to obtain an 18-rating.
Five explained that this version had been transmitted in error. The scenes
were so brief that they were imperceptible without freeze-framing and they
had not been picked up when the film was received from the distributor. The
broadcaster was aware that the BBFC had required edits but, on checking at
normal viewing speed, these scenes had not been visible and it had been
assumed that this was the edited version.
The broadcaster assured us that it would now be alert to the possibility
that very brief cuts required by the BBFC should be checked thoroughly. Five
was also looking at any other precautions that might reasonably be taken to
prevent similar mistakes occurring in future.
Given the extreme brevity of the pictures, very few viewers would have been
aware of these scenes if they had not watched the film using a frame-advance
mechanism. However the Programme Code does advise broadcasters to use the
BBFC video classifications as a guide when transmitting films. In this case,
an unintentional error was made. Taking into account the broadcaster’s
actions, we consider that appropriate steps have been taken to avoid any
The ECHR was meant to protect
us from abusive state organisations like Ofcom. Ofcon are censoring
legal material with no real attempt at justification. (They seem to hold
that a page count of research on porn and pin codes count as
justification when they make no attempt to say how this research shaped
their final decision). What is more serious is that they are operating
secret guidelines on what they are allowing on the adult channels. The
publically available guidelines clearly are being breached each day
seemingly with impunity from sanction. So what is going on?
It is hardly surprising then that they are not willing to answer any
of Paul's questions. They simply don't have any answers that are based
on law and reason. I take their silence as admission of cowardice,
prejudice and political interference.
Shortly after the publication of the new broadcasting code Paul
Tavener wrote a letter to Ofcom with a list of twenty one questions concerning the regulation of adult services,
the new code, Ofcom's research and various other related matters. Two
months, four emails, three phone calls and one letter to an MP later a
response was received from Ofcom's Director of standards (Chris Banatvala) and
Senior Standards manager (Fran O'Brien)
Result: Question 2 discussed but not properly answered and question
19 answered (and the answer is no, its not in the public interest to
release the information). One and a bit out of twenty one at this rate
it could take a long time to get answers to the remaining questions.
Further action is still required by Ofcom
The BBC was criticised yesterday by Ofcom for scheduling documentaries on
pornography, prostitution and drugs shortly after breakfast when young
children may have been watching. Ofcom ruled that Britain's Streets of
Vice, shown in a 9.15am slot earlier this year, was inappropriate
daytime viewing and contravened its code. The programmes included scenes of
the preparation and injection of drugs and footage of a woman discussing her
experiences as a dominatrix who made her living from online pornography.
Ofcom received 58 complaints from viewers some of whom said they were
watching with young children and others who said their offspring were not at
school because of extreme weather. Of particular concern, said Ofcom, was
some of the footage in the programme on drugs and the third and fourth
programmes in the series which were "less serious in tone" and focused on
brothels and pornography.
In the fourth programme, Ofcom drew attention to footage of sex aids and
toys, magazine covers with explicit headlines and interviews with
contributors including two women who regularly had sex with subscribers to
their website and a 26-year-old man said to be one of Britain's top gay porn
The BBC said the emphasis of its daytime service had been refocused in
recent years to make "serious and informative" material available to adult
viewers during the day and the four programmes in question were "intended as
serious and informative documentaries".
It also said the series had been scheduled to run during the school term and
had been carefully considered at a senior level prior to transmission. Other
daytime talkshows often discussed adult themes, it said. But Ofcom said that
the 45-minute programmes, while "manifestly in the public interest", and in
no way glamorising or condoning the activities depicted, went beyond what
viewers expected to see on BBC1 at that time of day.
The BBC said that as a result of reaction to the final programme it had
decided not to air the series again during the day and promised that any
future plans to cover sexual themes in the slot would "be scrutinised with
Back in June Ofwatch made a Freedom of Information request to Ofcom concerning various aspects
of it's recent PIN security research.
Ofcom's response was received last week with the usual claim that it
was not in the public interest to release most of the requested
information. One email relating to the commissioning of research was
released, but raises more questions than it answers.
It would seem that the PIN research* was not commissioned
until 23rd February 2005 and yet a draft report was available by 22nd
April. So in less than 2 months the required questions were agreed, 1557
children from 28 schools across the country as well as adults took part
in the study, the results were collected analysed and the report
It is evident from the time frame, the released email and comments
from Professor Patrick Barwise in the report itself*, that the research
was conducted in a great rush. It is therefore rather alarming that
Ofcom have refused to release the raw data from this research on public
interest grounds. More disturbing still was the claim made by Professor
Barwise in the report* that "Because of the tight
deadline, however I have not had time to check the reported figures in
the board paper and Annex 1 against those in the detailed tabulations.".
It would seem that it is not in the public interest to have an
independent check made on this data. This matter has been raised in an appeal
and will be taken to the Information Commissioner if
Another curious aspect of this research is that the key discussions
concerning the censorship of R18 content were taken in the content board
meetings of the 7th/8th March and 18th/19th April, which was before the
draft report reviewed by Professor Barwise was available. It would seem
likely that this research was undertaken to provide evidence for a
decision that had already been made, rather than the decision being made
based on the evidence. Such is the nature of evidence based regulation.
I was impressed
at the apt, Tellyban, description of Ofcon. There are very few
good things that you can say Ofcon on the subject of adult TV. Today's
theme must surely be hypocrisy. All the good words they promised about
being accountable and then on the first day of their new code they must
surely have issued secret guidelines allowing adult broadcasters to go
beyond the boundaries written in their code.
The recently published guidelines clearly say: 1.25 BBFC R18-rated films or their equivalent must not be broadcast.
Yet all of the snippets below would qualify for an R18 from the BBFC.
What is going on Ofcon? Are your guidelines a sham? Or are you the
worst regulator since censors began?
From Grawth on The Melon
Decided to try and catch as many of them as
possible last night. Watched various channels from 10ish to just after
midnight. Caught in illicit activity were the following:
- PBTV - Sandy: Agent Provocateur, and Sophie`s Wet Dreams (both
cunnilingus and digital penetration)
- TAC - The Real and Hot Chef (cunnilingus and digital
- Spice Extreme - Lolly Badcock and White Knights & Pink Maidens
(cunnilingus and digital penetration)
- TVX - sure I got something on them but can`t remember what -
will have to check the video
- Climax - Channel 3 just before midnight - outdoor sex and
- Xplicit - Tight and White (around midnight ish) prolonged and
vigorous close up masturbation, cunnilingus, semen on genitals
- SportXXX Babes - brief anal penetration, cunnilingus
Seems like I have some complaints to write!
By the way, did a bit of checking on the BBFC website to see what they
have made people cut to get an 18 certificate, and that`s why the
outdoor sex bit is in there, along with the semen on genitals
Thanks to Shaun
folk, which we'll call the TellyBan,
Said, of porn: "We're simply not a fan!
We`ve no justifications,
For banning such stations,
But we`ll do it, just `cos we can!
The purpose of our regulation,
Is to be certain of penis deflation.
If it gets too erect,
It`s sure to affect,
Our complete lack of justification.
We don't want 'em getting excited,
In case our society gets blighted.
The status quo, - it will stay,
They'll nee'r get their own way,
Then soon, we might all get Knighted.
We will allow 'em some tit,
And let girls, show just a bit,
But we can`t let a station,
Relieve male frustration,
'Cos we want them all physically fit!
Our quest, you know, really is kind,
It`s to prevent them all going blind.
We know masturbation,
If they watched such a station,
Will make all their things hard to find!
We know that you will not agree,
But we really do hope you`ll see,
That our position, is fair,
It`s straight out of thin air,
Now in future, don`t contact me!"
By Shaun Hollingworth.
Distribute freely! No copyright claimed
So at the start of a new era of Ofcon dictated
regulation (With the new programme code just coming into force
yesterday) we still cannot watch what we want on our own TVs. And we
have received no justification from Ofcon as to why!
Ian G has contributed a
ballad for the
occasion (mp3 deleted through lack of space)
Ballad for Sexual Freedom (aka The Buggers) By Ian G
The buggers won't let me watch what I want on my own TV
They say it isn't right and it wouldn't be good for you or me
But what do they care for you and me as long as they draw their salaries
No the buggers won’t let me watch what I want on my own TV
And the buggers won't let me choose if I wear my clothes
If I go outside I gotta dress up smart and keep it all below
But it doesn't seem fair I thought we were free and there's only one way
to really feel the breeze
No the buggers won't let me choose if I wear my clothes
And the buggers say the harm from porn to kids is self-evident
But censor-less kids are sane in Spain and that's real evidence
But small-minded pricks that have no sense fill all the seats in HM
So the buggers do the harm to the kids of the Brits and that's
And the buggers believe what they want and that's the score
They talk a load of shite and when we put up a fight then they make it
Well the sycophantic gits can kiss my bits we didn’t get great by acting
And when we go to the booths we’ll show them buggers the door
So the buggers better let me watch what I want on my own TV
Because it’s only right and it would be good for you and me
And if we have to go to court then so be it because the time is here to
do our bit
So the buggers better let us watch what we want on our own TVs
And the buggers don’t know what they do and that’s for sure
This Nanny State definitely ain’t what my pa fought for
He said “There’s nothing wrong in the naked form and sex is natural and
it can be fun”
No the buggers don’t know what they do and that’s for sure
© Ian Greenwood 2005
Lets hope that Ofcon don't
get to con the Europeans with their fine words and dishonest rhetoric.
Lets also hope that the next set of content standards are an improvement
on the current bollox.
Ofcom have announced some restructuring.
Kip Meek, Ofcom's chief policy adviser, has been put in charge of the
watchdog's international strategy, in a move that signals a tighter
focus on international developments in communications regulation.
Ofcom's work on convergence in the UK has been attracting increased
attention from regulators abroad.
Ofcom has consistently engaged with international organisations,
particularly in Europe, and we now want to put that on a more structured
footing, said a spokesman. Meek, who is chairman-elect of the
European Regulators' Group, will oversee Ofcom's contribution to reviews
of EU policies on television and telecoms, as well as its participation
in the 2006 international regional radio conference.
He will also take responsibility for Ofcom's content and standards group
and will report directly to Ofcom chief executive Stephen Carter.
Stephen Carter, the chief executive of Ofcon, received a 12% pay rise
last year as the cost of the senior team at the media and
telecommunications regulator rose by £1.2m. Ofcon's annual report,
published yesterday, revealed that Mr Carter was paid £414,463 in the
year to March 31, up from £370,769 the previous year. The package
included a bonus of £53,000 in addition to a basic salary of £267,500.
Ofcom's main board, content regulation board and executive committee
were paid a total of £3.5m, up from £2.3m the previous year. However,
the increase includes wages for a further two executive committee
Carter was not available for comment yesterday, but last year he
defended his remuneration - which is comparatively high for a public
servant - with the comment that he was "not just doing the job for the
money". [Perhaps it is the joys of censoring his
fellow man then]
Ofwatch will be attending the Westminster Media Forum Television
without Frontiers Consultation Seminar: The View from UK Stakeholders on
the 20th July in the Lewis Media
Centre, Millbank Tower
will cover a variety of issues associated with the revision of
the Television without Frontiers treaty including new TVWF
proposals and issues, delivering audio-visual content in 2010 and beyond,
TVWF for citizen-consumers of the
UK: the view from Parliament and
protecting vulnerable groups.
The keynote speaker is Chris Bone, Head, International Broadcasting
Policy Branch, DCMS. Delegates are expected to be a senior and informed
group numbering up to 150, including: Members of both Houses of
Parliament; officials from DCMS, DTI, HM Treasury, the Cabinet Office
and Ofcom; representatives from local government; interest groups and
the consumer movement; academia and the national media. Watch this
DCMS 'creative industries' discussion forum
Many thanks to Russ at
for telling us about the new
creative industries discussion forum that has been set up by the
DCMS to discuss.. well... creative industries. Although not particularly
user friendly, the forum is accessible if you are prepared to submit
your email address and wait a few days. Ofwatch has already applied to
join and we sincerely hope that the DCMS will be interested in
discussing our interest in the five year delay in applying a
proscription order to Satisfaction television. After all adult services
are a 'creative industry' and it would appear that there still maybe a
'pressing social need' to apply the proscription order to this aspect of
the creative industry as recommended by the ITC, notwithstanding the
fact that there has been a five year delay in it's application and the
minister is still considering the matter.
We recommend that all visitors who have an interest in 'creative
industries discussions' apply to the DCMS to join the forum to share
your views with others. No doubt the DCMS will be delighted - enjoy.
Freedom of Information Act
Ofwatch has been busy asking Ofcom for a variety of information
covered by the Freedom of information Act and Ofcom has been busy
refusing our requests. We hope to publish details of the state of play
in the near future.
See IanG's repsonse
Pinning Ofcon Down
answer to complaints about Ofcon's unjustified ban on R18s From John Glover
Thank you for your recent correspondence about Ofcom’s new
I am sorry you are unhappy with the rule which prohibits the
transmission of “R18” and “R18 standard” material. The decision
was taken in line with Ofcom’s statutory duty to protect the
under 18s from potential harm – and was reached after full
public consultation, and in the light of research into the use
of existing PIN security systems by both children and adults.
The details of Ofcom’s consultation on the Code, together
with responses to various pertinent points (including those you
have raised), are published on our website (beginning at page
108) at: www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/Broadcasting_code/bcstat/section2.pdf
Details of research into the potential harm to children; and
into the use of PIN security systems by children are also on our
website at: www.ofcom.org.uk/research/radio/reports/bcr/?a=87101.
Of course, I understand that this is a controversial area, and
that you and others may disagree with Ofcom’s conclusions.
However, I should point out that Ofcom did not conclude that
“R18” was unsuitable for transmission per se – only that it
could not be adequately protected from access by children under
Ofcom has stated publicly that it is willing to look at this
issue again if technical or other developments mean that secure
protection can be provided in future.
Thank you for your interest, Yours sincerely, John Glover
Senior Programmes Executive
Music channel U has been fined £18,000 for a catalogue of ITC code
breaches in addition to advertising breaches not detailed here.
Breaches of Ofcom’s (ex-ITC) Programme Code:
- section 1.6 (sex and nudity), in showing sexually explicit
material on an unencrypted music channel
- section 1.2 (watershed), including inappropriate language in a
video during the daytime schedule
- section 8.1(i) (programme related materials and
services), in promoting the sale of a commercial product within programmes;
- section 8.2 (use of premium rate telephone services in programmes) in
promoting premium rate telephone numbers.
Video Interactive Television Plc (VIT) is
licensed by Ofcom to run the satellite service Channel U. It is a music
channel with a strong interactive element that broadcasts urban music videos
and culture from the hip hop world. Its primary audience, according to the
licensee, is young viewers, mainly in inner city areas.
The supposed sex and nudity offense occurred in material broadcast on
various dates between 23.00 and 04.00. Channel U broadcast material
which was too sexually explicit for showing on an unencrypted channel in
breach of section 1.6 of the Programme Code (sex and nudity) in Channel
U’s ‘XXXU’ slot, in particular in its Hip Hop Honeyz videos. The
videos included explicit full frontal nude shots of women who also
appeared to be masturbating.
Of course under the new code 18 rated material can be broadcast
unencrypted between 22:00 and 05:30 so I would have thought that the
channel would be feeling a bit miffed about this part of the judgment.
Of course there is no way that the material could have been R18 as Ofcon
admit that the actors only appeared to be masturbating.
So will there be a hidden set of guidelines that say such things that
if a channel targets youngsters during the day that it cannot show 18
material at night? Lets hope all such bollox regulation will be swept
away with the new code.
Ofcon has said that it is concerned about the rising incidents of complaints
against Channel 4 for swearing in pre-watershed broadcasting, this time for
its dating gameshow Playing it Straight.
The third incident in recent months came in the dating show, which featured
a woman trying to identify gay men from a selection of male suitors, in
order to win a cash prize. It was originally broadcast on Friday evenings
after the watershed.
However, Channel 4 decided that it would also be suitable for its youth
strand T4 on the weekend, and it was broadcast on Saturday mornings in an
edited version suitable for younger audiences.
Nine viewers complained about the episode broadcast on April 9, where the
word "fuck" was accidentally included. Some viewers also felt that the
subject was unsuitable for the timeslot.
Although Channel 4 apologised for the swearing on air immediately after the
programme and explained that it had been left in the Saturday broadcast
because of human error, Ofcom ruled that Channel 4 was in breach of the
It said in its ruling that it welcomed the apology.
"Nonetheless, there have been recent complaints about swearing in a
pre-watershed repeat of the Big Brother Panto and in the subtitles of
100 Greatest Christmas Moments. We are concerned therefore at this
latest instance and have concluded that it was in breach of the Programme
Code," it said.
seemed to have most succinctly summed up the content of some of the other
aspects of the code
Broadcasters will be given greater leeway to exercise their discretion in
showing controversial scenes after the watershed in the wake of reforms from
the media regulator Ofcom affecting taste and decency rules that cover all
television and radio networks.
Tim Suter, the senior partner for broadcasting and standards at Ofcom, said
the deregulatory thrust behind the new code was designed to combine "freedom
of expression with editorial justification". The new rules will allow
broadcasters greater freedom to "transmit challenging material, even that
which may be considered offensive by some, provided it is editorially
justified and the audience given appropriate information".
But the "light touch" approach to material broadcast after the watershed
will go hand in hand with tougher rules designed to protect children and
under-18s. While the 9pm watershed will remain to protect viewers under 15,
Ofcom said that "all reasonable steps" must be taken to protect 16 and
17-year-olds as well, and not switch content too rapidly after 9pm.
In an age of hundreds of channels, Suter said adult viewers should be given
the tools to make up their own minds. The new rules apply only to television
and radio broadcasts but Suter agreed there would be a wide-ranging debate
in the coming months over the extent to which the regulator should oversee
content broadcast over broadband internet connections and to mobile devices.
Harm and offence
Ofcom said it was committed to maintaining the 9pm watershed as a signpost
to broadcasters and viewers, despite the growing popularity of personal
video recorders and other technology that allows audiences to "time-shift"
programmes. Large swaths of people still watch linear TV, and even those
who record programming use the time at which it was originally broadcast as
a guide, Suter said.
But, for the first time, Ofcom has included a definition of "context" in the
code that will allow broadcasters to be judged on the overall content of the
programme and the offending material's place in it. The 117-word definition
outlines a series of conditions that could be used to justify sex or
violence and the use of bad language in broadcasts. They include the time,
the channel, the size of the audience and whether viewers were warned about
content. It's about telling the punter what they are going to get before
they get it, said Ofcom's deputy chairman, Richard Hooper.
The regulator said yesterday that it had "deregulated significantly in the
area of commercial sponsorship and com mercial references, while ensuring at
the same time that the overriding principle of editorial independence is
Ofcom also said that it was minded to amend the existing sponsorship rules
to allow whole channels to be sponsored for the first time in Britain. The
change is designed to remove the anachronism that allows commercial
companies such as Thomas Cook or Hallmark to operate channels and name them
after their brand but does not allow advertisers to sponsor an entire
Suter said the regulator still has to work out which channels such
commercial involvement is appropriate for because of European
legislation prohibiting the sponsoring of news and current affairs
programmes. Therefore digital entertainment channels could be linked to a
commercial sponsor but any channel with a news element could not.
Advertisers and broadcasters had hoped that the new code would relax the
existing rules on product placement. As traditional TV advertising leads to
diminishing returns because of fragmenting audiences and ad-skipping
technology such as Sky Plus, they are looking for new ways in which to push
their products. Advertising gurus such as Trevor Beattie are convinced that
the product placement of the kind that has been seen for some time in
Hollywood films is inevitable.
Ofcom said that it was retaining the existing rules banning product
placement but acknowledged the pressure on traditional broadcast
advertising as a key source of funding. It added that it would look
again at the issue later this year in a wide-ranging review of the
television advertising market.
Impartiality and fairness
During the consultation period following the publication of the draft
proposals, there was much debate surrounding the idea that television news
would inevitably become more editorialised as the number of channels
Some believe channels broadcast from overseas, such as Fox News and al-Jazeera,
already stretch the rules to their limits and that their domestic
equivalents should be allowed. But Ofcom has chosen to maintain much the
same rules on fairness and impartiality as were in place under the old
regulatory regime. All television and radio news broadcasts "must be
reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartiality", it said.
During the consultation period, adult channels and anti-censorship
campaigners waged a vocal campaign for restricted R18 hardcore pornography
to be allowed on British television for the first time. They argued that
because viewers had to subscribe to adult channels and because content was
protected with a personal identification number, nobody should stumble
across the broadcasts.
But Ofcom, while allowing subscription channels to broadcast 15-rated films
throughout the day, said R18 movies, at present only available from licensed
sex shops, remained a special case. It pointed to research showing that some
children were able to use their parent's access codes without them finding
I feel that the clear inconsistency in their broadcasting
code has opened them up to a lot of flack in the coming months. So it only
seems fair to note what they have to say about their own code:
Ofcom today publishes its Broadcasting Code for television and radio.
Section 319 of the Communications Act 2003 and Section 107 of the
Broadcasting Act 1996 requires Ofcom to draw up a code for television
and radio covering standards in programmes, sponsorship, fairness and
The single, simplified Code, which comes into force on 25 July 2005,
condenses the six codes inherited from Ofcom’s broadcasting predecessors
into a framework of clear rules and principles. As well as setting
standards to protect the under 18s, the Code allows broadcasters as much
freedom of expression as is consistent with the law, as well as the
flexibility to differentiate between services and enable their audiences
to make informed choices.
Key points include:
Freedom of expression
- The Code allows broadcasters more creative freedom. It also
allows audiences greater scope to exercise informed choice
through the provision of information about what is to be
broadcast. For the first time in a broadcasting code, the
meaning of “context” is given and its importance highlighted.
- The Code provides for broadcasters to transmit challenging
material, even that which may be considered offensive by some,
provided it is editorially justified and the audience given
appropriate information. The freedom to broadcast this material
is, of course, limited at times when children may particularly
be expected to be listening or viewing - in television terms,
Commercial references and other matters
- In the area of sponsorship and commercial references, Ofcom
has deregulated significantly whilst ensuring at the same time
that the overriding principle of editorial independence is
- The ban on product placement remains in place; however,
Ofcom acknowledges the pressure on traditional broadcast
advertising as a key source of funding for commercial
broadcasters and will consult on product placement in the
context of a wider assessment of the broadcast advertising
market later in the year.
Protecting the Under 18s
- This new section lays greater emphasis on rules to safeguard
the under 18s, and in particular children (defined in the Code
as the under 15s) who are too young to exercise fully informed
choices for themselves.
- Children must be protected by appropriate scheduling - with
the use of, for instance, the watershed - from material that is
unsuitable for them.
- Children can also be protected by other means, including,
for example, PIN mechanisms. For premium subscription film
services, Ofcom believes such measures provide sufficient
security to allow the rules for these services to be changed.
Therefore, provided there is a protection system such as a
mandatory PIN - and that these systems are clearly explained to
all subscribers - premium subscription film services will now be
able to broadcast films which are rated up to a BBFC (British
Board of Film Classification) 15 certificate, 24 hours a day.
Ofcom believes this will extend viewer choice whilst ensuring
children are properly protected.
- However, in the case of adult material with a BBFC R18
certificate (commonly known as hard-core pornography), Ofcom
believes that it is appropriate to take a more precautionary
approach. Research commissioned by Ofcom indicates that some
children in the current environment are able to access and use
their parents’/carers’ PIN numbers without these adults’
knowledge. Given the strength of the material – and adopting the
precautionary approach – Ofcom is not satisfied that under 18s
can be effectively protected. Therefore, under the new Code,
R18-rated material is not permitted to be broadcast. However, if
future developments enable more secure protection, Ofcom would
consider whether to review this position.
The new Code has been informed by extensive research amongst viewers,
listeners and broadcasters; Ofcom also received more than 900 responses
to its public consultation. Ofcom has also taken into account a number
of industry and market developments. These include the rapid expansion
of choice in television and radio; the fact that the majority of
households now have digital and multi-channel television and access to
digital radio; changing patterns of use; wider developments in social
attitudes; and evolving technology.
Ofcom Chief Executive Stephen Carter said: “The new Code sets out
clear and simple rules which remove unnecessary intervention, extend
choice for audiences and allow creative freedom for broadcasters.”
He added: “It also secures the protection of the under 18s - which
our research has shown to be an important priority for viewers.”
Richard Hooper, Ofcom Deputy Chairman and Chairman of the Content
Board, said: "Both broadcasters and audiences told us of the need for
clarity and flexibility in how we approach these rules. We believe the
new Code meets those requirements."
Ofcon have released their new program code today on their
Just a reminder of their laudable aims published at the
time of the public consultation about their broadcasting code.
- Freedom of expression is an essential human right. It is the
right to hold opinions, to receive information and ideas and to
- Broadcasting and freedom of expression are intrinsically
linked. The one is the life blood of the other. Nowhere can that
tension between the right to freedom of expression and its
restriction be more acute than in drawing up a Code which seeks to
- All regulation in the proposed Code must be prescribed by law
and necessary in a democratic society. Unnecessary regulation should
not be in this Code. Rules cannot be made at the whim of a
- Regulation should be transparent, accountable, proportionate,
consistent and targeted only at cases where action is needed. That
is a requirement of the Act but it is also part of the test Ofcom
has to apply in restricting freedom of expression.
Now on a whim they have denied our freedom of
expression with a totally disproportionate and unnecessary ban of legal
adult material...Shame on them!
The most immediately relevant sections are as follows as applying to
films, premium subscription film services, and pay per view services,
1.20 No film refused classification by the BBFC may be broadcast
unless it has subsequently been classified or the BBFC has confirmed
that it would not be rejected according to the standards currently
operating. Also, no film cut as a condition of classification by the
BBFC may be transmitted in a version which includes the cut material
- the BBFC has confirmed that the material was cut to allow the
to pass at a lower category; or
- the BBFC has confirmed that the film would not be subject to
cuts according to the standards currently operating.
1.21 BBFC 18-rated films or their equivalent must not be broadcast
before 2100 on any service except for pay per view services, and even
then they may be unsuitable for broadcast at that time.
1.22 Premium subscription film services may broadcast up to BBFC
15-rated films or their equivalent, at any time of day provided:
- there is a protection system (a mandatory PIN or other
equivalent protection) pre 2000 and post 0530, that seeks
satisfactorily to restrict access solely to those authorised to view
when material other than BBFC U-rated or PG-rated or their
equivalents is shown; and
- those security systems which are in place to protect children
explained to all subscribers.
1.23 Pay per view services may broadcast up to BBFC 18-rated films or
their equivalent, at any time of day provided:
- there is a protection system pre 2100 and post 0530 (a mandatory
PIN or other equivalent protection) that seeks satisfactorily to
restrict access solely to those authorised to view when material
other than BBFC U-rated or PG-rated or their equivalents is shown;
information is provided about programme content that will assist
to assess its suitability for children
- there is a detailed billing system for subscribers which clearly
all viewing including viewing times and dates; and
- those security systems which are in place to protect children are
clearly explained to all subscribers
1.24 Premium subscription services and pay per view/night services may
‘adult-sex’ material between 2200 and 0530 provided that in addition to
protections mentioned above:
- there is a mandatory PIN protected encryption system, or other
protection, that seeks satisfactorily to restrict access solely to those
authorised [sounds very Orwellian] to view; and
- there are measures in place that ensure that the subscriber is an
1.25 BBFC R18-rated films or their equivalent must not be broadcast.
Ofcom's 35th broadcasting bulletin published yesterday contained the
following statement: Ofcom consulted in 2004on its new Code, which will
be published later this month and will take effect from late July (detail to
be advised) - with the exception of Rule 10.17 which comes into effect on 1
(note rule 10.17 in the draft code referred to Financial reporting and
promotion of investment activity so is unlikely to be relevant)
We have also received unconfirmed reports that the new broadcasting code
will be published tomorrow.
Ofcom have cleared the explicit sex shown in Channel 4's recent screening of
the Idiots despite complaints. It would seem that the television
censor is prepared to let explicit penetrative sex be shown on free to air
services whilst the screening of the same type of content on a PIN protected
adult only subscription channel is prohibited. We have every reason to
believe that this nonsensical inconsistency should be rectified when the new
Ofcom broadcast code is published.
Seven viewers complained about the graphic sexual content of this film –
especially as it was shown on a terrestrial channel.
Channel 4 explained that the film was shown as part of its “Banned” season
exploring censorship and cinematic works. The channel recognised that the
films in this season were of a controversial and difficult nature. It was
decided to precede each film with a short contextualising introductory film
warning potential viewers about the difficult or extreme material contained
in the film and explaining its context and justification.
On this occasion, Tim Roth, the presenter of these introductory films,
explained that the censors were troubled by a gangbang with full
front nudity and a brief shot of hardcore penetration. He went on to say
that the BBFC understood that the orgy scene was thematically important
because it questions the characters’ intentions and heralds the break-up of
the commune. Tim Roth explains that the BBFC passed the film uncut for
both cinema and home video release, but that the offending organs were
digitally obscured for its first television broadcast.
Channel 4 took the view that this broadcast was transmitted in a different
and very specific context - a debate about the censorship of film and
television. However, the channel took the precaution of scheduling the film
after midnight and gave clear and specific warnings about the content. In
addition to the introductory film, there was a warning immediately before
the broadcast and another returning from the advertisement break, prior to
the scene in question (broadcast at approximately 01:30).
Given, a) its statutory remit to innovate and experiment and to appeal to
the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society and b) viewers’
expectations regarding this remit, Channel 4 believed it made adequate
provisions to limit the degree of harm and offence likely to be caused.
We recognise that this is a challenging and controversial film, which some
viewers may find difficult to view. Until now, films showing unedited
graphic sexual content of this nature have been confined to specialist
subscription film channels. The Idiots has been shown before on
Channel 4, but with the scene of penetrative sex digitally obscured. When
previously shown on FilmFour and in an edited version on Channel 4, the film
attracted very little complaint and those received were not upheld by the
We recognise that showing such sexual imagery on a terrestrial channel
carries a greater potential for offence than when broadcast on a specialist
subscription channel which is of limited availability. Ofcom has to balance
the potential offence this film may cause viewers against Channel 4’s remit
to explore difficult themes – on this occasion the examination of
Under the circumstances: the serious contextualisation of the film within a
season examining the censorship of film and television, its artistic
purpose, the channel which transmitted it, the strong warnings before the
film and prior to the scene in question and the scheduling after midnight,
we consider this broadcast of the film on Channel 4 did not breach the Code.
These circumstances all served to prepare potential viewers for the extreme
An important consideration was the artistic intention of the film in its
style and narrative. The documentary approach, along with the brevity of the
scene and its pivotal role in breaking up the group, further distanced the
film from those of the ‘adult market’.
While we do not consider the film was in breach of the Code on this
occasion, we must consider carefully the acceptability of any similar
content on an individual basis. The film was not in breach
Ofwatch, who have also posted
Lord Currie's full speech to the newspaper society
Ofcom's Chairman Lord Currie recently made a speech to the Newspaper
society in which he reiterated Ofcom's position concerning television
regulation and it's diminishing role. There was talk of “evidence-based and
transparent regulation” and “a bias against intervention”. This short
extract gives an encouraging impression:
The Communications Act, rightly, in my view, gives Ofcom no powers over
television content delivered over the internet. It follows inexorably that
when your TV programme can be delivered via broadband alongside the
conventional broadcast signal, Ofcom’s powers to regulate must fade.
However, there will be, and should be, a lively debate about whether content
regulation of the kind that we are used to in broadcasting should extend to
internet content. To fully inform that debate, in the year ahead, Ofcom will
ask the following questions and will research the answers:
- firstly, is regulation of TV content over the internet
- Secondly, are there effective alternatives to direct regulation?
- And, thirdly, is regulation, on balance, desirable?
While I don’t want to say in advance what the research is likely to
show, my hunch is that the answers will be:
- On the practicability of regulation of TV over the internet –
- On whether there are effective alternatives to direct regulation
- And on the desirability of direct regulation – almost certainly
Even if feasible, my own view is that extending direct regulation is
absolutely not the right response. It would give enormous succour to
oppressive regimes around the world which seek to censor what their peoples
can access. I do want to see parents given the knowledge and the tools to
protect their children against inappropriate content. The need for such
protected walled gardens is very high on the list of concerns that people
have about the digital age and the internet sector is already responding to
Ofcom has said it would be impossible for it to effectively police
television content streamed over the internet and this job must rest with
the individual viewer. The warning from the communications watchdog comes
after proposals from Brussels aim to make media regulators such as Ofcom
responsible for keeping television content on the internet clean.
Both live and recorded television content is already available on the
internet. Using the internet and especially broadband to deliver programmes
gives content providers and broadcasters new ways of offering new services
to their customers, such as programmes on demand.
But under a revamp of the Television without Frontiers directive, the
European Union has suggested that in the same way regulators monitor and
rule on television programmes for taste and decency, they should regulate
internet broadcast content.
Currently, a complaint to Ofcom about harm and offence in a television
programme would be investigated by the regulator, and if the broadcaster was
in breach, this would trigger regulatory action. But Ofcom said trying to
regulate the myriad new services and technologies delivering television such
as broadband or 3G couldn't be done using the traditional methods.
It pointed out it currently did not have the necessary powers to regulate
television content accessible via the internet. Ofcom said the proposals
also didn't take into account different laws and interpretations of laws in
other countries. Parliament has decided in the Communications Act that
Ofcom should have no remit over internet content. I believe this was the
right outcome for today's environment. Ofcom has no role to play whatsoever
said David Currie, Ofcom's chairman.
The proposals have also concerned internet service providers who don't
believe it is their job to act as monitors of people's viewing habits and
believe such laws would not be feasible to enforce. The need for consumer
protection is evident [but] the issue could run into areas of censorship, a
can of worms that Ofcom would surely prefer to avoid opening - where would
the line then be drawn? Begin regulating internet content and do you then
have to regulate internet-based phone conversations, said Steve Harris
of the UK Internet Forum.
Ofcom said it is in favour of a mix of existing laws such as obscenity and
copyright and protection for children. The industry as a whole has a duty to
provide 'safe havens'. But this had to be combined with greater consumer
internet literacy because ultimately said Ofcom, the regulators would
ultimately have to be the viewers themselves blocking content they
personally were unhappy with.
Ofcom is considering an industry-wide classification system to help
consumers better understand the suitability of everything from TV shows to
online videos and music downloads.
Ofcom believes such a classification scheme - similar to that in place in
the Netherlands - could help manage the spread of harmful or inappropriate
material. It hopes the scheme would prove further reaching than the current
film-rating system, and offer viewers and listeners "clear, accurate and
timely advice about content".
Tim Suter, an Ofcom board member, told the Financial Times:
whether it is possible to find a common framework behind labelling of
content. A uniform labelling system would be very helpful. However, the
plan could not work without the agreement of internet service providers,
telecom firms and media groups.
The FT reported that the proposal has found favour with the BBC, Scottish
Media Group, and the Community Channel. But others are said to be less keen.
The paper said some commercial broadcasters - including ITV, Channel 4, and
Five - have claimed labelling could dilute their brands.
Ofcom has been warned that classifying non-UK material on the internet could
prove problematic as it would not be covered by the same rules. At present,
Ofcom has no say over internet content and Suter said it was not seeking to
expand its role.
The labelling system is part of the watchdog's bid to help improve media
literacy. A report on the subject is expected later this year.
Full rundown of latest information on
R18 ping pong between the Ofcom boards
The Ofcom content board and the Ofcom executive board have recently held
detailed discussions over R18 broadcasting, Adult services and the Premium
subscription watershed. No final decision has yet been made but a
provisional decision must have been made by now. The draft code is scheduled
for further discussion between the boards before it is finalised and
agenda from these board meetings don't usually reveal much however it is
interesting to see the tense that has been used when referring to R18
content: "Under the current Broadcasting Code the transmission of such
material on television was prohibited." Shouldn't that have been "is"
Code publication update
Our latest information concerning the date of the publication for the new
broadcast code is that Ofcom plans to publish it in "June". This was the
view of Graham Howell (secretary to corporation) in a recent response to a
Freedom of Information Act request. Unfortunately Ofcom do not consider that
it is in the public interest to release the discussion papers that were the
subject of debate at the recent board meetings. These papers will be
published later, presumably when the code is published.
Many thanks to Paul From
Paul Taverner interviewed Tim Suter and Matt Peacock at
Ofcom Headquarters Riverside house back on the 7th April. The discussion
covered the new broadcast code, adult service issues, how Ofcom deals with
some of it’s processes and the future of broadcast regulation in the
Internet age. The
of the full interview runs to 23 pages so Paul has also created a
of some of the more notable points.
The following is just a taster from Paul
I interviewed Tim Suter and Matt Peacock at Ofcom Headquarters Riverside
house back on the 7th April. The discussion covered the new broadcast code,
adult service issues, how Ofcom deals with some of it’s processes and the
future of broadcast regulation in the Internet age. The transcript of the
full interview runs to 23 pages so I have also created a summary of some of
the more notable points.
For those with limited time here is an outline
The broadcast code should be published “this side of the summer”, which in
my book means before the 22nd July, although even this is not definite.
I made several attempts to discuss adult service issues including R18
broadcasting issues but largely without success (see transcript and
summary), however I will be returning to interview Tim and Matt “the other
side of the summer” after the code has been published. The controversy
surrounding adult service issues appears to be so great that it even
inhibits discussion of the existing code in any meaningful way, presumably
for fear of sending the wrong signal or letting something slip.
I don’t think that this is right, but didn’t feel there was much to be
gained at this point in time by turning this into a big issue. I was offered
the opportunity for a more detailed explanation and justification of all
decisions after the code has been published and I will reserve judgement
until then, but if the outcome is anything other than respectful of adult
service viewers the arguments will be vigorous indeed.
Tim made it clear that Ofcom did not accept that they were broadcast
censors. I disagreed; unfortunately the dictionary definition is not clear
cut, with different dictionaries providing different definitions. Putting
aside the issue of individual judgements over whether a certain line has
been crossed or not, it would seem beyond dispute to me that if the Ofcom
code *forbids* R18 content on any channel at any time that this amounts to
the prior restraint (i.e. censorship) of all R18 content. In a single
sentence the current Ofcom code imposes prior restraint on an entire BBFC
classification. To put that in perspective 1387 R18 titles were certified by
the BBFC in 2004 compared to 870 18 titles. If that’s not censorship then I
don’t know what is.
When discussing proscription orders Tim said “Of course Xtasi hasn’t been
proscribed, we have put the paperwork into the secretary of state, but it
hasn’t yet been proscribed.” I was surprised to say the least. More
surprising still this was later confirmed by Matt – “we have passed this to
DCMS, I understand that they have begun the process from their side but that
this is not complete.”. OK so responsibility has moved on from Ofcom to the
DCMS, but I’m rather surprised that people such as Tim and Matt weren’t more
aware of the current situation, unless of course there is something that the
DCMS aren’t telling us…? Further investigation required at the DCMS when I
get five minutes.
There was a far greater interest in discussing the future of broadcasting
standards in the Internet age. Basically within the next three to five years
regulations will have to be radically changed as the unregulated Internet
starts to merge with highly regulated world of traditional broadcasting.
Ofcom do not want to be the regulators of the Internet, but believe that
change of some sort must happen and that there is now a need for serious
public debate over what is desirable. Ultimately Parliament will have to
decide, within the bounds of what is possible. It was also suggested that
massive strides in technology will soon impact broadcast television in a big
way. With BT’s broadband speeds *quadrupling* last year from 512k to 2meg it
won’t be that long before millions of people will have access to broadband
As porn is so often at the forefront of technological advances expect to see
major changes very soon. The regulatory Titanic has struck the Internet
iceberg. On the surface everything remains calm and tranquil, but below
decks water is pouring in. The regulators know that it won’t take long
Minutes of the 25th Ofcom Contents Board meeting
Draft Broadcasting Code: R18s (Adult Services)
The Content Board considered a number of papers on whether Ofcom should
permit the television transmission of “R18” (or “R18” standard) sex material
on premium subscription channels (which recommendation would then go to the
Ofcom Board for consideration when the Ofcom Board reviewed the draft
Broadcasting Code). The Content Board noted that there were strict legal
restrictions on the retail supply of “R18” video tapes and DVDs - they could
only be purchased in licensed sex shops and only by adults aged over 18 -
but that there was no restriction currently on accessing such material on
the internet. Under the current Broadcasting Code the transmission of such
material on television was prohibited.
The Content Board made various comments on the papers which were to be
considered by the Ofcom executive before the papers went to the Ofcom Board
for a preliminary discussion. It was noted that this section of the Code
would return to the Content Board for further discussion as part of the
complete draft Code and statement before proceeding to the Ofcom Board for
final approval before publication.
Spotted by Kit Ryan.
Agenda of the Ofcom Contents Board meeting of April 18
1. Content and Standards issues
2. Draft Broadcasting Code: R18s
3. Draft Broadcasting Code: Final Code
4. Draft Broadcasting Code: Launch plans
The speculation is that any significant agenda item on the same bill as the
final code must surely mean that there is significant wording to discuss.
Maintenance of the existing prohibition would take one sentence and would
hardly need discussing.
Tavener has been reading Ofcom reports looking for clues about whether R18
will be allowed on pay TV.
Ofcom published it's
annual plan for the coming year last week. The plan describes what
projects Ofcom hope to run over the next 12 months and what it hopes to
achieve. Searching through it we found the following statement on page 5
under "reducing regulation" - actions and proposals (2004/05):
Relaxation of sponsorship rules to provide greater flexibility and
freedom for commercial partnerships but ensuring the key principles of
transparency and editorial independence. Combined and modernised the former
separate radio and television codes and aligned them with a less
interventionist approach to provisions affecting those over 18.
Not really definitive but nevertheless a positive sign.
Keep an eye on
Through an arrangement with the good folk at
Tavener will be given the opportunity to interview Tim Suter, Ofcom's
partner for content and standards. The interview will cover a variety of
broadcasting standards issues and will be held in Ofcom's Headquarters at
Riverside house London on the 7th April.
Speaking today Paul Tavener said, “I will be
raising a range of issues with Tim, including questions about the way in
which Ofcom regulates, such as how guidance will be set, how impact
assessments are carried out, how complaints are dealt with and the future of
broadcast regulation. I will also be asking some questions covering the
regulation of adult services such as censorship, proscription orders and the
current regulatory practice with such services. Unfortunately, although
perhaps not surprisingly, Tim will not be able to comment on detailed
aspects of the new code at this point in time, nevertheless I feel that this
will still leave a great deal of interest to many readers at both Ofcomwatch
Tim Suter is a member of both the Ofcom executive board and the
Ofcom content board.
Tavener is an anti-censorship campaigner and the webmaster for Ofwatch.
Another tick of the Ofcom 4 season clock?
The notes of the
Ofcom board's 50th meeting suggest that as we previously guessed the
publication date for the new programme code has slipped from 'Spring' into
The Broadcasting Code consultation raised a number of issues which
will be considered in detail by the Policy Executive, Content Board and Main
Board respectively, in accordance with the previously agreed work plan. The
Board commented on a batch of papers covering particular sections of the
Code. The full Code will be brought to the Board for approval in due course
and is due to be published in early summer.
Channel 4 have read the programme code regarding
permissible films. It clearly states that all 18 rated films (for video) are
OK to broadcast after 10pm. If Ofcom are not happy with this definition they
should write their own rather than delegate to the BBFC. The BBFC correctly
take no account of Ofcom's re-use of their guidelines when taking decisions.
I am wondering if Ofcom will repeat their policy of using BBFC decisions. Eg,
I could image that Ofcom may say that all R18 films may only be broadcast
encrypted and PIN protected. I also note the possibility that the R18
certificate may eventually vanish and that hardcore porn may be classified
18. At that point all hardcore could then be broadcast free to air.
Channel 4 is to be investigated by broadcasting regulator Ofcom after
breaking one of terrestrial TV's last taboos, airing uncensored footage of
penetrative sex during a screening of the cult movie The Idiots.
The film, made by celebrated director Lars von Trier, had previously been
shown with pixellation to obscure the more graphic footage in a sex scene,
but last week it was shown unedited. Although it was a landmark TV first,
few even noticed its significance because it was tucked away in a late-night
slot and the station did not flag up its inclusion in advance. Ofcom,
however, has now received a number of complaints which it is examining.
The screening comes as the debate about portrayals of real on-screen sex
with graphic detail intensifies following the release two days ago of the
film 9 Songs - the most explicit film to go into mainstream UK
The Idiots was shown as part of Channel 4's "Banned" season of documentaries
and films, which examined issues of censorship and taste. It was screened on
Monday night at midnight, preceded by a warning about its content.
The Danish film was at the forefront of a wave of art-house films which
containted increasingly frank portrayals of real sex yet were deemed
suitable for an adult audience with an 18 certificate. These include Romance, Baise-Moi, Intimacy and
Anatomy of Hell.
John Beyer, director of the campaign group Mediawatch-UK, said:
is unquestionably pushing the boundaries and they are doing it quite
deliberately. I guess that Channel 4 will be up there bidding for the
television rights to 9 Songs along with all the other pornography channels.
I just feel that Channel 4 is now beyond control, yet the regulator seems
unable and unwilling to have anything to say about what Channel 4 is doing.
I just don't know what can be done to stop this collapse of standards.
A spokeswoman for Ofcom confirmed it had received several complaints, which
were being looked into: As ever, everything has to be taken in context -
the time of broadcast and the scenes themselves. Ofcom's programme code
says portrayals of sexual behaviour must be defensible in context
and, where graphic, must be reserved for late-night slots.
Ofcom is currently revising its programme code and has consulted widely
about relaxing a bar on the screening of R18 movies - hardcore pornography -
for specialist subscription channels.
It demonstrated its "light touch" by dismissing a recent complaint against
Five for briefly screening scenes of erect penises from the films Romance
and Baise-Moi, which were also part of a censorship season in
Channel 4 defended the uncensored screening and said that it had a policy of
not editing films, unless required to do so by the law or under Ofcom's
code. Channel 4 decided it was not necessary to cut the film given its
artistic merit, the fact that the explicit scenes are fleeting and the
context in which the images appear, a spokeswoman for the station said.
With the explicit warning, she added, the audience would have been in no
doubt about the film's content, and Channel 4 has received no complaints
since the film was broadcast. In its judgments and pronouncements on
standards to date, Ofcom has indicated it is reluctant to interfere with the
broadcast of stronger material broadcast late with warnings on 'minority
channels', providing this is handled responsibly and can clearly be
justified by context and so on.
Beware of self
proclaimed attributes. Ofcom proclaiming themselves as "joined up" & "light
touch" regulators is seeming about as appropriate as religions being
"tolerant" or Fox News being "fair & balanced"
Based on an article from
Channel 4 has been reprimanded by Ofcom for showing an animated film with
non-realistic images of nudity before the 9pm watershed. Ofcom upheld 21
complaints about the three-minute animation, His Passionate Bride,
which featured sparsely drawn images of female genitalia and scenes
involving sexual intercourse and oral sex with accompanying sound effects.
The majority of complainants thought the film, broadcast at 7.55pm, was too
sexually explicit to be shown before the watershed; some were concerned it
was too violent and one thought it negatively stereotyped gay men.
Channel 4 defended the animation, saying it could not be mistaken for a
children's cartoon and that the nudity was sparsely drawn and in no way
voyeuristic, titillating or threatening. And the broadcaster said it warned
viewers about the content before the programme was broadcast.
But Ofcom ruled that the film, which was sandwiched between Channel 4 News
and cookery programme Beyond River Cottage, breached the programme code on
two counts, one relating to family viewing and the watershed and the other
in terms of its sex and nudity content.
The regulator said Channel 4's pre-broadcast announcement
did not fully
explain the content of the programme. In any event the programme was
unsuitable for transmission at this time irrespective of any announcement.
Channel 4 was also found guilty of breaching the family viewing rules on a
separate occasion, for broadcasting a music video showing three bikini-clad
women washing a truck whilst being hosed down by fully dressed firemen
during the Hit40UK chart show at 9.55am. Seven viewers complained that
Channel 4 and two other broadcasters - Emap's Kiss TV and Chart Show TV -
had played the video to Khia's song My Neck, My Back at an
Chart Show TV said it had removed the song from its daytime playlist and
rescheduled it to be shown only after 10pm. But Channel 4 and Emap defended
their broadcasts and were found in breach of the programme code.
Elsewhere, Ofcom found Capital Radio station Xfm in breach of the news and
current affairs code for letting DJ Eddy Temple Morris play an anti-George
Bush song and put forward his personal political views on air. Sky One was
castigated for broadcasting a trail for the Ian McShane cowboy series Deadwood that contained the word "fucking".
Thanks to Rainman on the Melon
The current published Ofcom guidelines only define the
prohibition on hardcore material in terms of '18' material is acceptable,
'R18' material is not. It is therefore useful to receive specific BBFC
definitions of what is 18 and what is R18.
Given that Ofcom recently fined Playboy TV such a
disproportionate for breaching the guidelines then it is interesting to
wonder why other transgressions are not punished for tellycore. Presumably
there is an unpublished document that allows material slightly beyond the 18
guidelines provided below.
Further clarification has been received from Peter Johnson, Senior BBFC
Examiner: The situation remains as follows: extreme close ups of
genitalia; shots offering a view up a distended vagina or anus; clearly
unassimilated shots of oral-genital or oral-anal contact (especially shots
showing clear sight of contact of lips or tongue with anus, labia, clitoris,
penis or scrotum); and clear sight of real, sustained masturbation are
restricted to the 'R18' category and must be cut to obtain an '18'.
What a state of affairs, hardcore is what thousands of customers want, it is
perfectly legal and yet a few crap rules from the dark ages can be still
used to inflict softcore shite on the few people willing to pay for it. If
Ofcom want to continue to use old rules they should at least attempt to
justify their censorship as demanded by the European Convention of Human
Rights. It is simple human rights rights abuse to provide no more
justification than 'rules is rules guv'
Edited from a more detailed statement from
Playboy TV UK/Benelux Limited fined £25,000 for showing R18 version material
(and taking into account breaches of the Programme Code in relation to
encrypted and unencrypted promotional material transmitted before 21:00)
On 1 May 2004 at 00:08, Playboy TV UK broadcast under encryption, R18
version material which is prohibited under the Code. It showed extremely
graphic images of real sexual activity including close-ups of genital
The Sanctions Committee regards the admitted breaches of the Code as serious
given the breaches were in relation to material that carries an absolute
prohibition. The material, though not extreme in nature, was not a
borderline example of what could or could not be broadcast in the UK, but a
very clear breach of the relevant provisions of the Code.
Playboy TV UK admitted it was of a standard that is prohibited under the
Code for transmission at any time, whether encrypted or not. According to
Playboy TV UK the compliance failure was the result of human error. However,
the Committee believed it also indicated a failure in Playboy TV UK’s
management to institute adequate training and operational procedures
necessary to avoid such breaches of the Code.
The Committee took into account as aggravating the seriousness of the Code
breaches, the fact that these breaches occurred on just one of several
separate occasions over a period of three days (from 30 April to 2 May 2004)
when Playboy TV UK committed other
breaches of the Code. On 30 April, it had broadcast images in pre-watershed
promotional and other material, which though encrypted, were of an 18
standard (equivalent to BBFC 18 certificate standard), in breach of the Code
which provides that this material should only be broadcast after 10pm. On 2
May, Playboy TV UK also broadcast promotional material on a free to air
(unencrypted) basis at 20:21 which was more explicit than would be
acceptable under the Code.
The free to air material was, in particular, insufficiently protective of
the interests of children. Any broadcaster licensed to transmit adult
encrypted material which is restricted to subscribers but has free to air
promotions, has an obligation to ensure that no sexually explicit material
is shown even inadvertently in free to air promotions. For the avoidance of
doubt, Ofcom wishes to make it clear that any such infringement is not to be
Ofcom took into account as mitigating the breaches Playboy TV UK’s frank
admission that it had breached the Code and the contrition it expressed and
the fact that all but one of the breaches occurred under encryption. The
Committee also noted Playboy TV UK’s acceptance that it was appropriate to
consider a financial penalty in respect of these breaches.
Ofcom's chief executive Stephen Carter made a
speech to the Westminster eForum on the 26th January showing that Ofcom
is keenly aware of the political implications of its actions and the
necessity to time announcements to fit in with the political agenda (such as
a probable May election).
"...by the time we have digested what we expect to be an extensive set of
comments on 3rd February and developed our final proposals, it will be in
the immediate run up to a May election and, though we are an independent
regulator, that is never the best time to be announcing decisions that could
have significant market and public policy impact".
Although the speech was made with reference to the possibility of a break up
of BT there can be little doubt that exactly the same caution would have
been applied to the deregulation of R18 content on television and may well
have played a part in the decision to delay publication of the new
broadcasting code by 4 months.
As was mentioned in January the new broadcasting code will not be
published until May 2005 and is not expected to come into effect until July
IMCB assigned task of censoring mobile phone content
IMCB’s remit is to determine a Classification Framework for Commercial Content against which
Content Providers can self-classify their own content (whether provided directly or indirectly) as
18 where appropriate. Such content will be placed behind Access Controls so that, when
combined with age verification arrangements, it is only available to those identified as 18 or
Commercial Content services which fall within IMCB’s remit and the Classification Framework
Video and audiovisual material
Mobile games, including java-based games
Services which fall outside IMCB’s remit and the Classification Framework are:
Text, audio and voice-only services, including where delivered as a Premium Rate
Service and regulated by ICSTIS
Gambling services (because they are age restricted by UK legislation)
Moderated and unmoderated chat rooms (commercial unmoderated chat rooms will only
be accessible by those 18 and over)
Location-Based Services (which are the subject of a separate Mobile Operator code of
practice available at
Content generated by subscribers, including web logs
Content accessed via the internet or WAP where the Mobile Operator is providing
Specific Classification Framework
Content Providers have responsibility to ensure that the Commercial Content they are directly or
indirectly providing is not unlawful or illegal.
Where Commercial Content contains any content described in any of the sub-sections below it
must be rated as 18 for the purposes of this Classification Framework. As a general guide it
should be noted that if the content in question would be likely to be rated as 18 by an Agreed
Body if it was relevant to that body, then it should be rated as 18 under this Classification
In addition, the context and style in which the content is being presented, whether
as a still picture or a video clip, should always be taken into account. Humorous content, such
as violence or combat techniques in a children’s cartoon, may therefore be acceptable.
The following list content that is to be rated 18
No theme is specifically prohibited though these may be subject to other legal requirements. Content must not actively promote or encourage activities that are legally restricted for those under 18 such as drinking alcohol or gambling.
Frequent and repetitive use of the strongest foul language.
Actual or realistic depictions of sexual activity, for example, Real or simulated sexual intercourse.
Depiction of sexual activity involving devices such as sex toys.
Sexual activity with visible pubic areas and/or genitals or including threats of sexual
violence such as rape.
Note, however, that material which genuinely seeks to inform and educate such as in matters of
sexuality, safe sex and health and where explicit images are the minimum necessary to illustrate
and educate in a responsible manner may be permissible.
Nudity where depicting pubic area and/or genitals (unless it is material which genuinely seeks to
inform and educate such as in matters of sexuality, safe sex and health and where explicit
images are kept to the minimum necessary to illustrate and educate in a responsible manner).
Graphic violence which in particular dwells on the infliction of pain, injuries or scenes of sexual
violence. In respect of mobile games in particular: Gross violence towards realistic humans or animals such as scenes of dismemberment, torture, massive blood and gore, sadism and other types of excessive violence. Graphic, detailed and sustained
violence towards realistic humans and animals or violence towards vulnerable or defenceless humans.
Depictions which promote or encourage illegal drug taking or which provide instructive details as to illegal drug taking.
Any depiction of sustained or detailed inflictions of pain or injury including anything which
involves sadism, cruelty or induces an unacceptable sense of fear or anxiety.
Dangerous combat techniques such as ear-claps, head-butts and blows to the neck or any
emphasis on the use of easily accessible lethal weapons, for example knives.
Detailed descriptions of techniques that could be used in a criminal offence.
will certainly show the regulators just exactly how un-joined up they really
are. As an adult viewer why exactly should I be constrained to a 10pm - 12pm
window when this can be shown. This hardly applies to the net now does it.
And of course R18s are fair game on the net but under considerable
doubt on subscription TV. The economics of demand will surely have its way
Net regulation 'still possible'
TV content on the net is becoming more common. The blurring of boundaries
between TV and the internet raises questions of regulation, watchdog Ofcom
has said. Content on TV and the internet is set to move closer this year as
TV-quality video online becomes a norm.
At a debate in Westminster, the net industry considered the options. Lord
Currie, chairman of super-regulator Ofcom, told the panel that protecting
audiences would always have to be a primary concern for the watchdog.
Despite having no remit for the regulation of net content, disquiet has
increased among internet service providers as speeches made by Ofcom in
recent months hinted that regulation might be an option.
At the debate, organised by the Internet Service Providers' Association (ISPA),
Lord Currie did not rule out the possibility of regulation. The challenge
will arise when boundaries between TV and the internet truly blur and then
there is a balance to be struck between protecting consumers and allowing
them to assess the risks themselves, he said.
Adopting the rules that currently exist to regulate TV content or
self-regulation, which is currently the practice of the net industry, will
be up for discussion.
Some studies suggest that as many as eight million households in the UK
could have adopted broadband by the end of 2005, and the technology opens
the door to TV content delivered over the net. More and more internet
service providers and media companies are streaming video content on the
BT has already set up an entertainment division to create and distribute
content that could come from sources such as BSkyB, ITV and the BBC. Head of
the division, Andrew Burke, spoke about the possibility of creating content
for all platforms. How risque can I be in this new age? With celebrity
chefs serving up more expletives than hot dinners, surely I can push it to
the limit, he said.
Rn fact, he said, if content has been requested by consumers and they have
gone to lengths to download it, then maybe it should be entirely regulation
Internet service providers have long claimed no responsibility for the
content they carry on their servers since the Law Commission dubbed them
"mere conduits" back in 2002. This defence does not apply if they have
actual knowledge of illegal content and have failed to remove it. The level
of responsibility they have has been tested in several high-profile legal
Richard Ayers, portal director at Tiscali, said there was little point
trying to regulate the internet because it would be impossible. Huge changes
are afoot in 2005, he predicted, as companies such as the BBC offer TV
content over the net.
The BBC's planned interactive media player which will give surfers the
chance to download programmes such as EastEnders and Top Gear will make net
TV mainstream and raise a whole new set of questions, he said.
One of these will be about the vast sums of money involved in maintaining
the network to supply such a huge quantity of data and could herald a new
digital licence fee, said Ayers.
As inappropriate net content, most obviously pornography viewed by children,
continues to dominate the headlines, internet regulation remains a political
issue said MP Richard Allan, Liberal Democrat spokesman on IT. Allan thinks
that the answer could lie somewhere between the cries of "impossible to
regulate" and "just apply offline laws online".
In fact, instead of seeing regulation brought online, the future could bring
an end to regulation as we know it for all TV content. After Lord Currie
departed, the panel agreed that this could be a reality and that for the
internet people power is likely to reign. If content is on-demand,
consumers have pulled it up rather than had pushed to them, then it is the
consumers' choice to watch it. There is no watershed on the net, said
It looks like we will have to wait for resolution of the
issue of R18s on satellite & cable. It will be interesting to see what the
adult channels serve up in the meantime.
is anticipated that the Ofcom Broadcasting Code will be published
around the end of May 2005. This is due to the large number of responses
received and the considerable number of points made by respondents.
UK's adult channels should now consider suing Ofcom for loss of earnings.
Ofcom are prolonging unnecessary censorship without justification. On a more
cynical political note, I wonder if 'late spring' means the day after the
The publication of the new broadcasting code has been delayed by four
As many of you will be aware Ofcom had previously publicly stated that it
expected to publish it's new broadcasting code at the end of January. With
just two weeks left Ofwatch decided to ask exactly when publication might be
expected to take place. The harrowing response from Fran O'Brien of Ofcom's
content and standards group on Sunday afternoon was "late spring"! In my
book this means May, although it is conceivable that this could refer to
Late April or even early June.
It would appear that the large quantity of replies that Ofcom received to
the standards consultation last year has raised many "interesting points"
that need to be considered. No doubt the response made by the BBC (see news
item from 4th October last year) has provided many of them. Perhaps the
regulators have finally realised that they have a tiger by the tail with
this new code and are in no hurry to let go of it.
Ms O'Brien also stated that not all of the decisions had been taken yet
regarding the code. Whether this indecision extended to the question of R18
broadcasting or not was not specified, but as the majority of the responses
to the consultation concentrated on this topic it would seem likely. Judging
by the agenda items and notes published on Ofcom's website it is quite clear
that a considerable amount of discussion has already taken place within both
the content board and the executive board. The fact that another 4 months
are now required to sort it out may indicate that there has been some
significant internal disagreement.
Based on a story from
Channel 4 have escaped censure for broadcasting the word cunt on afternoon
TV. Comic Janey Godley uttered it on reality show Kings Of Comedy,
during one of the live feeds from the house transmitted on digital station
One nutter was so offended at the expletive that he complained to
broadcasting Ofcom watchdog, which today ruled that the issue was resolved.
E4 did apologise for the ‘unfortunate error’, which came just before 3pm on
October 10, during an exchange between Glaswegian Godley and fellow comic
Stan Boardman, who was also living in the reality house.
The broadcaster said it would have apologised at the time, but did not
notice the bad language in what was a genuine mistake. The shows are
transmitted with a time delay that allows producers to censor bad language
or libellous comments, but this was missed. E4 said that Godley had lowered
her tone when she uttered the expletive, which had also been partly obscured
by Stan Boardman’s laughter. As the camera was primarily on Boardman at the
time, the production team was focussing on his speech rather than hers.
Ofcom ruled: We agree that such swearing is unacceptable for broadcast at
that time of day. However, the word was certainly somewhat muffled and we
understand how it came to be overlooked. We are satisfied that the channel
has measures in place to enable unsuitable material to be edited out, and
accept that this was an individual lapse. In view of E4’s response to this
matter, we consider the issue resolved.
Office of Communications
A regulator with multiple
roles. Roles of Interest to Melon Farmers are:
TV censors for nearly all radio/TV/cable/satellite except for the
Internet censors for Video on Demand. This task has been
delegated to ATVOD but Ofcom retain teh absiolute authority
Internet censors for copyright/file sharing issues
Advert Censors for the limited role of TV channels which exist
mainly to advertise premium rate telephone services (such as babe
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